guatemalan fine art, artist, fine art Monedas de guatemala numismatic coins fron Guatemala ABASCAL, Valentin ABULARACH, Rodolfo ANLEU DIAZ, Enrique ARIMANY, Jaime AUYON, Francisco BANUS, Ramon BARRIOS, Moises BATRES, Regina de CABRERA, Roberto CASTILLO, Carlo Marco COJULUN, Mynor COLONIAL Paintings DE LEON CABRERA, Enrique DE LEON, Zipacna DE LEON, Ivan ESPINOZA, Doniel FANJUL, Carlos FELIX, Jorge FRANCO, Juan Antonio GALLARDO, Manolo GONZALEZ PALMA, Luis GRAJEDA MENA, Guillermo GUILLERMO, Erwin HASSELL, Emily HERNANDEZ, Jose Guillermo IRIARTE, Augustin IXQUIAC XICARA, Rolando IZQUIERDO, César LEIVA, Gregorio LOPEZ, Anibal MARTINEZ, Arturo MATOS DE MASSOT, Antonia MONROY, Arturo PEREZ DE LEON, Rafael PEREZ, Miguel Angel PETTERSEN, Carmen de PISQUIY, Rolando QUIROA, Marco Augusto RAMIREZ, Oscar RIGALT, Carlos RODRIGUEZ PADILLA, Rafael ROJAS, Elmar SANCHEZ, Magda Eunice SANCHEZ, Rolando SARAVIA GUAL, Max SUNUM, Ana Lucrecia TUN, Francisco URRUTIA, Alejandro VALDERRAMOS, Arturo VALDIVIEZO, Fernando VASQUEZ KESTLER, Victor 15 GUATEMALAN ARTISTS ON 30 ENGRAVINGS Mint-mark G and NG In 1524, Guatemala was conquered from Mexico by Pedro de Alvarado, who founded the Captaincy General of Guatemala. This ranged from Chiapas, today in Mexico, to Costa Rica. Before the conquest the cocoa bean was the most widely used form of currency in the region and it continued to be used simultaneously with other means of payment until the late nineteenth century, predominantly by the indigenous population. After the conquest, there was also a very limited circulation of coins minted in Spain, Mexico, Peru and Potosi. The majority of which were of high value, low value coins were practically non-existent. In order to prevent the circulation of counterfeit or debased currency, Guatemala counter-marked the 2 reales coins of Lima and El Potosi with a crown in 1662. The Guatemalan Mint was founded in 1733, in the city of Santiago de Guatemala, now Old Guatemala. This was the fourth in Latin America, after those of Mexico, Peru and Potosi. Macacos (rough pieces of marked silver of varying value) and coins were minted here and used as a mark of origin the G, of Guatemala, until 1776. The earthquake of 1773 completely destroyed the city of Santiago de Guatemala and the capital was moved to the Valle de la Ermita in 1776. From this year onwards, the NG, of New Guatemala, was used as a mint mark. On the 15th September 1821, Guatemala declared its Independence from Spain, but months later, in 1822, it was absorbed into the Mexican Empire of Agustin de Iturbide, until this empire collapsed in 1823. On 1st July 1823, the independence of Guatemala was declared once more and the Federal Republic of Central America was founded. The federal period began in 1824, with the minting of the first Guatemalan currency referable to as NG, Central American or Del Arbolito. The period ended in 1851, with the minting of the last of these. During this period, and due to the currencys insufficient circulation, Guatemala often resorted, for a second time, to foreign coin and local macacos. On March 21, 1847, was signed the decree which founded the Republic of Guatemala. In 1852, an 8 reales trial coin is minted, featuring the bust of Rafael Carrera. In 1854, another trial is minted for an 8 reales coin of Christopher Columbus. Years later and after having equipped the Guatemalan Mint with new gear, in 1859, begins the formal coinage of the pesos and reales of the Republic, with the bust of Rafael Carrera. The first pesos of this era were known as "Carrereños" and were accepted not only throughout Central America, where the circulated both officially and unofficially, but also beyond its borders. In 1881, private coinage and farm tokens (fichas de finca) were legally authorized, such coins are cataloged in our section bearing that name. In 1894, Guatemala uses for the third and last time the resealing of foreign currency. In 1924, the monetary reform is implemented. The political organization of Guatemala does not change, since it remains a republic. What distinguishes this period from the previous is the adoption of the Quetzal as a monetary unit. The first coins were minted in 1925 with local and foreign spreading. More than eighty years since its creation, and after some modifications to the metals used in coinage, the Quetzal remains today the national currency. Colonial Period Since the arrival of the conquistadores in 1524 in Guatemala, European currencies started to circulate, primarily Spanish and later on Mexican, Peruvian and Bolivian. They are used in very small amounts and mostly of high-value, since coins of a fraction of the currency are almost nonexistent, which is why the use of the native currency pattern (cocoa shells, feathers and skins, among other things) was predominant in the early years of the conquest and coexisted with the use of currencies, mainly with the indigenous population until the late nineteenth century . Because along with foreign currency, lots of counterfeit currency came in, of low grade or altered. local authorities in 1662, after hearing about the Potosi Mint scam proceeded to counter-mark with a crown (pictured above), coins of 2 reales from Lima and Potosi which had the weight and lawful title, trying to distinguish them from the low grade and adultered ones and prevent fraud. These coins are known by the name of Moclón, being the first Guatemalan numismatic items, which are known to be two different types of crowns. But coins with a lower grade of gold or silver continued to come in and circulate, especially tepuzques (copper,in Nahual language) small discs of lesser quality or adulterated gold without title, only weight value, which circulated in Mexico around 1522, and later in Guatemala. The Royal Mint was built in Guatemala under the decree of his Majesty King Philip V of January 20, 1731. It was the fourth in America, after Mexico's in 1537 Peru's in 1565 and El Potosi 's in 1572. But it was not until January 17, 1733, that Guatemala received seals and other necessary instruments, from the Mint of Mexico. It had recently received new tools in order to manufacture round coins. On March 19, 1733, the first currency in Guatemala was coined, a doubloon of sixteen escudos (shields). From 1733 to 1753, were minted in Guatemala 2.124 frames of gold and 508.401 silver frames, the "macacos" (rough non-round pieces of marked silver of varying value) also called cob currency. From 0.9170 columnar silver they coined 8, 4, 2, 1 and 1 / 2 reales. And from 0.9170 gold, they coined "busts" of 16, 8, 4 and 1 escudos. From 1733 to 1746, they belonged to the reign of Felipe V and, from 1747 to 1753, to the reign of Ferdinand VI. During this period they used only a single tester initial, "J" referring to José de Leon, and the "G" of Guatemala, as a mint mark. Guatemalans silver macacos are hard to confound for others as they are the only ones of "columnar" type to have been minted. Because macacos, with their irregular shapes were easy to counterfeit, a royal decree of May 14, 1751, ruled that in Guatemala coins were to be minted circular and with a ridge, similar to those Mexico had been manufacturing since 1732. However, due to the lack of proper equipment, it is not until May 29, 1754, that the first "round coins was minted, silver ones still of "columnar" style and the gold "busts" with the Spanish coat of arms belonging to the reign of Fernando VI until 1760, and Charles III, from 1760 to 1771. The tester was José de León "J" until 1759, when he was replaced by Pedro Sánchez de Guzmán, "P". "G" was used as the mint mark and they minted in silver and gold 0.9170, in denominations of 16, 8, 4 and 1 escudos, and 8, 4, 2, 1 and 1 / 2 reales. For the half real coins, from 1754 to 1771, there were no initials of the tester. With the death of Ferdinand VI, Charles III is proclaimed king on September 11, 1759. However, due to the slow pace of the news at that time, Guatemala celebrates the proclamation on July 25, 1760. This is why in 1760, coins were minted both with busts of Fernando VI and Carlos III. In 1771, it is ordered to change the columns of Hercules of the columnar silver coins, for the bust of the king, they secretly changed the grade of the gold coins to 0.90103 and the grade of silver to 0.90277 and the old currency and macacos, both of higher purity, were collected to be exchanged for new coins of lower value. According to Kurt Prober, the change in coin design was basically due to two reasons: to distinguish the new coins easily discounted, and not to discredit overseas trade, the famous "columnar" being accepted by anyone, anywhere. In Guatemala, this decree was partially fulfilled in 1772, year that were coined the first "busts" in silver, with the new law regarding silver and gold grade, but due to the earthquake of 1773, they could not make the change of the macacos and the old currency, that continued to circulate. Following the earthquake that destroyed the city of Santiago de Guatemala, now known as Antigua Guatemala, the capital city is transferred to the Valley of La Ermita. During the 2 years following the earthquake, 1774 and 1775, no coins were minted, there are only references to 8 reales coins from those years but no proof of their existence. The mint mark is changed to "NG", New Guatemala in all denominations in 1777. In 1776, they used the "NG" only for a few coins of 8 real. On January 26, 1784, tester Pedro Sanchez de Guzman dies, which is why no coins were minted that year. His son Manuel Eusebio Sanchez takes over as chief tester, he used the initial "M" from of 1785 on all coins minted in Guatemala, and is remains so for the remainder of the colonial period and much of the period of the "Federation". By royal decree of February 25, 1786, the grade ot gold coins is secretly changed again, to 0.8750 and the grade of silver to 0.8958. The law is fulfilled that same year in Guatemala and remains until the end of the colonial period. On December 14, 1788, Carlos III dies and his son Charles IV ascends to the throne that same year. The new king is celebrated in Guatemala on November 18, 1789. It is believed that there are coins of 1 / 2 and 8 reales from 1789, with the name and bust of Carlos III. In 1789 and 1790 coins were minted with the name of Charles "IV" and the bust of Carlos III. The bust of Carlos IV, is coined from 1790, with the name "Carlos III". By royal decree of April 30, 1789, the silver coin of one fourth of real "quarter" is established, in the series of American coins. In 1796, Guatemala coined in the first dated coin of 1 / 4 real with the mint mark "G" and without tester initial or ridge, since the coin was quite small. Coins "anepigrafas" (without date or mint) were manufactured in Guatemala between 1794 and 1795. As can be seen in the photos above, the size and design of the castle and lion, are identical to those used later in dated coins from Guatemala and different from those used by other American mints to make anepigrafas coins. On March 19, 1808, Carlos IV abdicates from the throne and his son Ferdinand VII takes over but he was forced to resign when Napoleon Bonaparte imprisons him in France for six years and rules the country. Before resigning, Fernando VII signs a decree, which demands that for purposes of coinage, they keep using his father's bust, and only the legend be changed, while the new casts are ready. and that when those arrive, they start making some coinage with the bust of Ferdinand VII, dated of 1808. During the years 1808, 1809 and 1810, minted coins had the name of Fernando VII and the bust of Carlos IV. From 1811, they began to mint currencies with the bust of Ferdinand VII and the date of 1808, with the new bust, as ordered. In Guatemala, the proclamation of Fernando VII is celebrated on December 12, 1808. There were several coins minted for the occasion, which are listed in the Colonial Period, with their corresponding weights and denominations. On September 15, 1821, Central America declares its independence from Spain. Article 16 of the Act of Independence, commanded to mint a medal to perpetuate forever the memory of that day. It was designed by the engraver José Casildo España ( who left his initials engraved "JCE" on it). It was minted in silver, copper and copper-gold-plated 21-carat (pictured above). On the front it read "FREE AND INDEPENDENT GUATEMALA (GUATEMALA LIBRE E INDEPENDIENTE), September 15, 1821 . Generl. Gainza, "and the Mints of America, in their order of founding, were represented by obelisks . On the obelisk representing Guatemala, the shield of the city and its base is showing the date of independence. On the back it read "THE FREE OFFER PEACE BUT NEVER THE SERVANT", and there is an angel armed with arrows, stepping on broken chains that bounded the two worlds and shedding abundance from the cornucopia in his hand on the American continent and placing a laurel branch on the old world. With the independence of Central America we should end the colonial period. But it lasted very little, because of unfavorable conditions in both economics and politics, since not everyone agreed with the independence, not only locally but also in different provinces. Some wished to retain their independence, others wanted annexation to Mexico and some remained loyal to the Crown. The events after this and the low quantity of coins minted during these years, allow us to consider into this period, the annexation of the Mexican Empire of Iturbide. Taking advantage of the situation and having "invited" Central America to join the Empire, in February 1822, forces led by Vicente Filisola invade Guatemala and incorporate to the empire the provinces of Central America. The Union lasts until the empire falls the February 1, 1823. Meanwhile, the Mint Guatemala was ordered to manufacture pesos coin with the bust of the emperor, without changing the weight and fineness that was used for colonial coins and the stamps sent from the Mint of Mexico were used to that effect. It is not known whether this order was executed or not, because if it was, the coins could not be distinguished since all coinages were made using the mint mark of Mexico. In 1822, Guatemala and Quetzaltenango coined the proclamations (proclamas) to the Empire of Iturbide in gold and silver. At that time the existence of currency in Guatemala had slowed considerably. Partly because, after the independence, free trade was in place and a great amount of silver and gold coins were taken out to Belize and La Habana in Cuba, and also due to the large amount that realistic bureaucrats took with them upon returning to the mainland. Iturbide's pesos were accepted by the population in the absence of circulating currency. On July 1, 1823, after the fall of the empire of Iturbide, Central America declares independence, from both Mexico and Spain and any other country and the United Provinces of Central America and Federal Republic of Central America are created, leading to a new numismatic period. Federal Republic of Central America On July 1, 1823, after the empire of Iturbide's fall, Central America declared its independence both from Mexico, Spain and any other country and created the United Provinces of Central America or the Federal Republic of Central America, which included Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua and Costa Rica. The province of Chiapas which belonged to the former Captaincy General of Guatemala joined the Mexican Republic. According to The Constitutional Charter promulgated on November 22, 1824, each province had its own local government directed by a prime minister. All local governments obeyed to the federal government, based in Guatemala and led by its president, Manuel José Arce. Juan Barrundia was the first mayor of Guatemala, due to differences with the federal president, he was deposed and imprisoned. The state's seat was moved to Quetzaltenango where was murdered the Guatemalan deputy Cirilo Flores. Given this, the states of El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua protested and declared war on the federal government. On April 13, 1829, Guatemala City is occupied and looted by the army commanded by Honduran general Francisco Morazán, who reinstated in their positions the authorities deposed by Manuel José Arce. In 1833, Francisco Morazan,the federation president, moved the seat of the federal government to San Salvador upon suggestion of Dr. Mariano Galvez, head of state of Guatemala. Galvez, with his liberal tendencies, was reelected in 1835, but had to flee to Mexico in February 1838, given the progress of conservative forces led by Rafael Carrera. From El Salvador, the Federal President could do nothing to prevent Rafael Carrera and the Conservative Party from taking control of Guatemala. In May, 1838 , Congress authorized the federal states of the federation to organize themselves as they saw fit. Following that Nicaragua segregates from the federation in April 1838, Honduras and Costa Rica in November 1838, El Salvador, February 1841 and finally in 1847, the Republic of Guatemala is founded Economically, when it gained independence, Central America was in bankruptcy. No taxes were collected anymore. Mining was down considerably. The passage of the Mexican troops had left all state institutions without funds. The country was dragging a colonial debt towards Mexico that could not be paid. Although opened to foreign trade, Central America had little to export. Trade between provinces was almost non-existent and difficult to implement due to the lack of roads that linked them. The various struggles between the provinces worsened the economic situation. The people treasured the few gold and silver coin that still existed to prevent future instability, this being the only means of saving insurance available to them. With time and the shortage of coins, many macacos (rough coins of varying value) began to appear, they had been kept by Colonial Indians during all those years. They were subsequently coined again by the authorities along with foreign currency which also came into circulation. Also, many fake currency cob made in Honduras began to circulate, which the government banned it and collected. With the economic situation against them and being freed from the heavy hand of colonial ruling, which apparently was the only thing that united the five provinces of the Captaincy General, a strong local-ism emerged in each province, that was not counterbalanced by any economic interest, political or social common ground. In an attempt to bring the provinces together, the Unionist contracted in 1828, the "English" debt, presumably to invest in infrastructure and generate wealth, but it was used to pay back wages and debts of the state. The expenses of the Union as well as debts were basically absorbed by Guatemala. The Guatemalan Mint had been virtually paralyzed since 1821. In 1824, began the coinage of the federation in very scarce quantities and many were exported or leaved the country to pay for goods being imported. For the minting, they used pesos, modules, ridges and titles of the colonial period differing only in design and the addition of 10Ds20Gs ( 0.90277 silver) for the silver coins and 21 carats for gold coins. Guatemala continued to use the "NG" as mint mark except in the smaller coins (cuartillos) that used only the "G". Some coinages were also conducted sporadically and only in some denominations in the provinces of Honduras ("T" of Tegucigalpa) and Costa Rica ("CR"). Guatemala minted coins of 1 / 4, 1 / 2, 1 and 8 reales in silver and 1 / 2, 1, 2, 4 and 8 escudos in gold, but only the coinage of quarters, 8 reales and 2 escudos were made almost regularly. There are two known tested 8 reales, in 1824. One with the foliage of the largest ceiba (common Central American tree) in two varieties, with fluted edge and ridge. And the other, with the sun in the middle of the 5 volcanoes. In 1829, during the occupation of Francisco Morazan, the provisional coin of 1 real is wedged for the state of Guatemala. From 1838 to 1841, Guatemala reseals for the second time foreign currency and local macacos. The Republic The Republican period for purposes of numismatic study will be divided into three parts: The Republic of Rafael Carrera, ranging from 1852 to 1871, The Reformation, from 1872 to 1893, and liberal governments, from 1894 to 1924. THE REPUBLIC OF RAFAEL CARRERA. On March 21, 1847, Rafael Carrera signed the decree which founded the Republic of Guatemala. Before this decree El Salvador, Honduras and Nicaragua were trying to invade Guatemala, but they were defeated in the battle of Arada in February 1851. Once consolidated his power, Rafael Carrera publishes and pledged allegeance to the Constitution in 1851, the year Guatemala minted the last coins from The Federation. To commemorate the founding of the republic and the swearing of the Constitution, they coined medals with the same obverse. We know of the trial coinage of 1 peso, in 1852, from the collection of the former King Farouk, with the bust of Rafael Carrera on one side and the other the shield of the Republic adopted since 1847. However, the House of Representatives by decree of April 21, 1853, stated that the numerary of the Republic would have the same specifications as that of the Federation, but with its own design, which would have on one side the shield of the Republic and the other a bust of Christopher Columbus. In 1854 they coined a few coins of 8 reales with the characteristics dictated by the House of Representatives, but in 1857, after being declared "Lifelong President" Rafael Carrera was decided to change the bust of Christopher Columbus, by his. During the years that the Guatemalan Mint remained almost paralyzed, coins of the Federation circulated in the country, with countermarks such as 1838, 1841, California tejos (an octagonal rough shape of 21.5 carats), U.S. Eagles, British pounds, francs and gold coins of Costa Rica. In the absence of circulating currency, circulation of coins from England (1 pound 1 shilling), the U.S. (1 dollar, 50 and 25 cents), France (1 French), Chile (10 pesos) and Costa Rica (8 escudos) was authorized. It was not until 1859, after being provided with new equipment that the Guatemalan Mint began minting the formal currency of the Republic, in denominations of 1 / 4, 1 / 2, 1, 2 and 4 reales and 1 peso in silver 0.9030, and 4 reales, 1, 2 and 4 pesos in gold 0.8750. They also coined coins of 5, 8, 10, 16 and 20 pesos in gold 0.8750 and 0.900. All currencies, except for 1 / 4 real, bearing the portrait of the dictator Rafael Carrera. The "pesos Carrereños," as they were called, enjoyed great prestige, and were of official and unofficial circulation throughout Central America and Belize, they also circulated throughout Latin America and even in the Philippines. In 1861 and 1862, El Salvador counter-marked with an "R" (standing for rehabilitated) coins of 1, 2 and 4 reales and 1 peso of the Republic of Guatemala. Because a lot of numerary made by the Guatemalan Mint was exported at this time, in spite of the great quantity manufactured, (574.570 9,198,295 gold and silver coins) then again one starts to feel the lack of circulating currency in the country. On April 11, 1865, the "Perpetual President" Rafael Carrera died. He is replaced by President Vicente Cerna, who ruled from 1865 to 1871. But the portrait of Carrera was still minted until 1871. From 1866 with the inscription "Founder of the Republic of Guatemala" instead of "President of the Republic of Guatemala", used in previous years. Because the currencies of Guatemala did not follow the patterns adopted by other nations, that prevented them to be used for commercial transactions with the United States and Europe. So in 1869 it was decided to reform the monetary system. From that year the value of the coins begins to be expressed in terms of the metric system instead of the colonial nomenclature 10Ds20Gs (0.90277) for silver and 21 carats (0.8750) for gold coins. They also began to mint silver coins with a grade of 0.900 and gold with the grade of 0.8750, with diameters used for the U.S. dollar. An attempt was also made at first to introduce the metric system in the nomenclature of the coins, using sub-multiples of 1, 5, 10 , 25 and 50 cents instead of 1 / 4, 1 / 2, 1, 2 and 4 reales respectively, but due to lack of habit within the population, this reform was not successful and only coins of 1, 25 and 50 cents were minted. The 1871 penny was minted in copper. Rafael Romaña was the first tester of the Guatemalan Mint from 1859 to 1871, the tester's initial "R" was coined in all currencies during this period except in the 1 / 4 of the real and the penny in 1871 in which was not included the assayer's initials. THE REFORMATION. On June 30, 1871, the revolution headed by Miguel García Granados and Justo Rufino Barrios triumphs against the unpopular government of Cerna. García Granados assumes the presidency and holds office until his resignation in 1873. During his presidency the national coat of arms was created, it is still minted today in all the Guatemalan coins with slight variations, the bust of Carrera not being minted anymore from 1872 and they go back to the pattern of pesos and sub-divisions of reales as opposed to the unpopular sub-multiples in cents. Following the resignation of García Granados, Justo Rufino Barrios became president, until his death in 1885. During his administration he banned the circulation of macacos, giving their holders 3 days to exchange them in the Guatemalan Mint for coins or vouchers. In 1881, the second attempt to introduce the decimal system and the pattern of sub-multiples of cents was also unsuccessful. They coined to that effect coins of 5, 10 and 25 cents made of silver, and 1 cent of copper. Only 25 cent coins continued to be minted until 1893, others were minted only during the year 1881, proceeding the same year or shortly thereafter to coin their equivalents in sub-multiples of reales. Also in 1881, the coinage of Private coins and Farms tokens was officially approved, as the practice had been going on long before. Several medals were minted under President Barrios's mandate. In 1885, Justo Rufino Barrios proclaimed the Centro American Federation assuming command of the Unionist troops to invade neighboring countries. In that attempt Barrios was killed at the Battle of Chalchuapa, El Salvador, on April 2 of that same year. Once Barrios is dear, Manuel Lizandro Barillas takes over, and makes peace with the Central American Republics. Through diplomacy, he tried to unify them and in 1889, the Covenant of the Union was held, and 2 trials were minted in copper, of 1 and 2 cents of the Central American Union that never came to circulate in reality. In 1892, General Jose Maria Reyna Barrios assumes the presidency of Guatemala. From a numismatic point of view in the years 1892 and 1893 there were no major changes in the coins, the coinage being quite low in 1892 and with many variants in 1893, as in the example of "quarter" (cuartillo) of that year, there are more than 7 variants. In 1892 they returned to minting coins of 2 reales, which in previous years had been replaced by the 25 cents coins. On this year and next , both kinds of sub-multiples were minted with the same design and dimensions. LIBERAL GOVERNMENTS. When Reyna Barrios came to power in 1892, there was a real financial chaos caused by the shortage of currency in circulation. Along with circulating coins minted by Guatemala, a lot of foreign currency circulated, not all had the same weight and fineness and obeyed the same law as the national although people accepted them as the same. To solve that problem Reyna Barrios decided to make an important coinage of his own currency and foreign currencies in circulation would be resealed, if they did have the weight and fineness required. As the Guatemalan Mint could not meet such a large demand in such a short time, they decided to back the local coinage with emissions from abroad. In 1894, local coinage begins in denominations of 1 / 4, 1 / 2, 1 and 2 reales of silver 0.835 and 4 reales and 1 peso of silver 0.900. The picture above is an essay in copper 1 peso from 1894. For foreign coinage they hired the British firm The Mint, Birmingham, Limited. With an "H" that distinguishes them from the local coins, this firm minted coins in all denominations during 1894 and 1895 except for 4 reales coin that was not coined in 1895. Also in 1894, they proceeded to reseal the foreign currency to the legal purity standards, and the circulations of coins that do not meet this standard is prohibited. The local emissions continued regularly until 1898, when President Reina Barrios was killed and instead a new dictator, Manuel Estrada Cabrera, assumes power and keeps it until 1920. During the 22 years of the Estrada Cabrera administration, only small fractions of coins were minted. The grade of silver fell from 0.835 to 0.500 in 1900, when the firm, The Mint, Birmingham Limited was hired back to manufacture coins made of nickel in denominations of 1 / 4, 1 / 2 and 1 real. Minting was repeated in 1901. In 1910, 1911 and 1912, The Mint manufactures once again Guatemalan nickel coin money but this time only in the denomination of 1 real. It is not until 1915, that the Guatemalan Mint manufactures coins in Guatemala again, this time in copper and in denominations of 12 1 / 2 and 25 cents. In the picture below is a trial of 25 cents in alpaca. During the Estrada Cabrera administration, the Guatemalan Mint devoted itself almost exclusively to coin allegorical Medals to satisfy the ego of the dictator. In 1920, Estrada Cabrera is deposed. Instead Deputy Carlos Herrera assumes the Presidency , but he is also deposed 20 months later. His only numismatic contributions were porcelain coins of 2 real made in Germany and from which few specimens are known, and an essay of 1921, of 1 peso made of nickel. In December 1921, General Jose Maria Orellana assumes the presidency and to solve in the short term the absolute lack of currency, he sends for minting in 1922, coins of 50 cents and in 1923, coins of 1 and 5 pesos. The minting was done by the Guatemalan Mint, of bronze and aluminum. Assays are known of coins of 1 peso in 1923 made of aluminum and 5 pesos made of silver and bronze in 1922 and gold in 1923. To correct the financial problem permanently in 1924, he created a new monetary unit, "El Quetzal", so we move on to our last numismatist period. The Quetzal On November 26, 1924, General Jose Maria Orellana signed Decree No. 879 introducing a monetary reform and adopting the quetzal as the national currency. The new monetary standard is based on the decimal system and maintained for over 50 years its parity against the U.S. dollar. A Quetzal in those days amounted to 60 pesos from the old currency. In 1925, the first coins were minted with foreign and local emissions. The Philadelphia Mint coined the denominations of 1, ½ and ¼ Quetzal silver coins in 1925 and 20, 10 and 5 Quetzales gold coins in 1926. Also in 1925, Guatemala Mint manufactured denominations of 10, 5 and 1 centavos, with J. A. Ceballos as chief tester. The coin of 1 Quetzal was of little acceptance among Guatemalans, mostly because of its size and weight. Three years after its coinage 7000 of the 10000 coins were melted and the silver obtained was used to mint coins of lower local value. We know that in the subsequent years they continued melting the coins obtained by the Central Bank, without specifying the amount, which is why today it is extremely difficult to find one of those coins. In 1926, the Royal Mint of London coined the ¼ Quetzal coin, and this Mint was to take care of all the coinage issued from 1928 to 1939, including the other denominations of ½ and 2 cents that were added in 1932. The coins of 50 cents and 1, 5, 10 and 20 Quetzales were only minted during the first year, their values being replaced with the issuance of bills, almost always regularly minted only in denominations of 25, 10, 5 and 1 cent until now. In 1931, the general government takes down Ubico who ruled for 14 years. During his administration he kept up with the financial policy started by General José Maria Orellana. In 1943, he asks the Philadelphia Mint to coin the national currency, in denominations of 25, 10, 5, 2 and 1 cents of Quetzal. No coins had been minted since 1939. The 25-cent coin commemorated the inauguration of the National Palace, opened in 1943. In 1944, the Mint of San Francisco minted coins of 2 and 1 centavos in bronze, and coins of 10 and 5 cents in silver were minted locally. On October 20, 1944, the revolutionary movement overthrew the dictatorial regime of General Ubico, who had left in charge General Ponce Valdes as interim president. The Revolutionary Government takes over, and then designates as president, on March 15, 1945, Dr. Juan Jose Arevalo, popularly elected for the period 1945-1951. From 1945, all coins are minted locally by the Mint of Guatemala. In 1949, changes occur in the design on the back of all coins according to decree No. 528 of 1948, which is preserved today, replacing the Quetzal perched on a pedestal, by the national flower, the Monja Blanca, in the currencies of 50-cent coin, that was not coined until 1962, by the head of an indigenous woman in the currencies of 25 cents, by a monolith at Quirigua's mayan ruins on the 10 cents, by the national tree, the Ceiba, on the coins of 5 cents , by the statue of Fray Bartolome de las Casas in the pennies, and a farming plow in a half-cent coins, a coin that was never minted. In 1951, Colonel Jacobo Arbenz Guzman is elected as president, and three years later he is overthrown by an invasion funded by the United States to defend the economic interests of the United Fruit Company. Although Guatemala did not get a dictator as a ruler, as had been happening since independence from Spain, military dictatorships ruled the country for the next 30 years. In 1954, the making of silver fractionated coins was realized by different individuals and minting of the coin of 1 cent in copper was done by the Imperial House of Chemical Industries, in England. This firm also minted the cents of 1957 and 1958. In 1962 and 1963 they minted again after 37 years without being minted coins of 50 cents bearing the Monja Blanca design as stated in Decree No. 528 of 1948 (see picture). The coinage is made by the Mint of Guatemala. There are several different coins. In 1965, they definitely stop using silver in coinage and replaced it with the copper-nickel melt until now. The various coinages are made by the Guatemalan Mint in an almost regular fashion until 1995. There is assays of coins of 50 cents and 1 Quetzal in 1983 and 1984 (pictured below), but these were never formally minted. In 1992 a medal was struck with a value of 1 Quetzal celebrating the centenary of the birth of Guatemalan painter Carlos Mérida. There were assays in 1995, of 1,10 and 50 Quetzales minted for a foreign entity, that were presented to the Bank of Guatemala as an example of material that could be used to manufacture currency in Guatemala without the sollicitation or acceptance of the Mint. They are currently being sold on eBay in the following varieties of aluminum, bronze, copper, bi-color material (aluminum bronze) and nickel (see photo below). In 1999, 74 years after minting the first one, the 1 quetzal coin in bronze is minted for the second time, alluding on its other side to the "firm and lasting peace" signed on December 29, 1996, after more than 30 years of "war" with the Guatemalan guerrillas. There are known assays in 1998, with the same design in two varieties, with fluted edge and smooth edge. Also in 1999, new currency coins of 50 centavos are minted, in bronze like the ones from the 1962 edition and 1963 with the Monja Blanca on the reverse. That same year, they changed the material that had been used to coin the cents, then are now coined in aluminum. Farm Tokens For the purpose of this catalog we will call farm tokens (fichas de finca) any object that is supposed to have served as means of payment, unit to control work performed or in exchange for any item, product or service. Created or issued by any individual or legal entity on an individual basis, mainly farms and ranches, they aim at being easily distinguishable from other objects of the same species. We exclude from this concept any documents or titles issued in paper, registered or written to a bearer, such as bills, checks, vouchers, notes, stocks, bonds or similar. What we know as Guatemalan Farm tokens in other countries are called Token, Private Coins, Boletos de Café, Señas y Ñapas, Riles de Finca, etc. As mentioned in previous sections of this catalog, from the pre-Columbian times people used cacao, shells, feathers, furs and other species as an indigenous monetary standard , coexisting with the use of currencies, mainly in agricultural or suburban areas and among the indigenous population until the late nineteenth century. These objects used as currency pattern, for not having being distinguished as such by the issuer or user, are outside of this catalog but have been used for the same purpose as farm tokens. As such we already mentioned the lack of circulating currency that the Guatemalan population went through during its history, especially in agricultural areas of the country, usually remote and poorly linked to the villages and towns of that time. During the colonial period, mining was the main economic activity in the region. Agriculture was primarily destined to local consumption and did not require a great amount of currency for its production (based mainly on indigenous slavery) or to market the different products, that were mostly bartered due to the low money supply. After the independence of Central America, the abolition of slavery and the fall in production and export of cochineal and indigo in the mid-nineteenth century, large estates and farms were founded, to cultivate coffee. Such farms required a great amount of labor, mainly indigenous. Due to the apathy, fear, narrow-mindedness of the Guatemalans of Spanish descent, who had lost money producing cochineal and had had their land sacked by the civil war, many of these farms were formed by German immigrants, Colombians, even Belgian and French who in their countries of origin had already heard of the new opportunities in growing coffee. The lack of workforce, communications, access to credit and coin supply were some of the difficulties encountered by the new landowners. Each and every one of these difficulties helped spread the use of farm tokens among the coffee industry. Most tokens belong to Guatemalan coffee plantations and were created and used between 1850 and 1950, although its use continued in some regions until the late twentieth century. The token from Furrer Hastedt & Co. is the oldest know, dated 1854. Nickel was minted in denominations of ½, 1 and 2. The date on it, although reputed to be the year of minting, could also be the date of commencement of operations of the company or foundation, because in those years they were just beginning to develop coffee growing in the country. There are Guatemalan farm tokens produced the traditional way, counter-marked or minted over other coins, and the formally minted coins, specially for a particular farm. Among the rustic or traditional farm tokens, we find different shapes, sizes and materials. It is very difficult to determine their date of creation, unless otherwise indicated or inferred by the farm to which it belongs, if it occurs, and the date on which the farm operated. Of the counter-marked tokens, or the ones minted on other coins, we mainly find the ones using the copper cents from Guatemala, dated 1871 y 1881, whether they were minted, trimmed or crushed. We also find in smaller amounts some token made with other Guatemalan coins or foreign coins. In these cases, the date of the coin used helps us to roughly guess the period in which it was used. In the case of formally coined tokens, it is easier to determine the creation date, if it is not indicated on it, by the period of time during which the minting houses and coining companies operated, if the token bears their mint mark. The Guatemalan Mint was authorized to mint individual tokens according to the regulations of 21 November 1.894, which limited the coinage of tokens from farm to copper material and 17, 22 or 26 millimeters in diameter. It made most of the farm minting. Also in this regulation, the use of the same size as the national currency was prohibited, which by then was 37, 31, 24, 18, for the silver coins, and 16 mm and 25 mm for a copper penny. Some tokens were minted abroad by houses such as: as A. Popert, Paris, L. H. Moise S. F. (A company that existed in San Francisco, CA, USA, from 1893 to 1897); C. A. Klinkner & Co. S. F. (Which also operated in San Francisco, CA, from 1889 to 1897), Moise-Klinkner Co. (a company created from the merger of the previous two in 1897 and operated until 1930, when it became Patrick & Co. ). The farm tokens were originally used as a means of control of work or as a substitute to circulating currency. They were given by the owner of the farm to the worker or the service or product provider. For example, the person delivering a load of firewood, a bushel of corn or a crate of coffee cut, was given a token, either indicating that product or service or its equivalent in real or pesos. In principle, the token would be exchanged periodically by the owner of the farm to the bearer for its equivalent in legal tender. As this is not always the case in reality, some traders began to accept them in their establishments as a means of payment, provided that the farm was known and solvent. Over time most of the farms established their own shops and there were exchanging their own coins for items of consumption required by the workers, the landowner getting the double benefit and somehow holding captive skilled labor that was so scarce in those days. That way, since the tokens were being accepted out of the estate, people started to counterfeit them, mostly the rustic handcrafted ones. What initially started as a system which made easier to both the employer and the worker, the exchange of goods or services, eventually became an instrument of exploitation, fraud and speculation, outside any government control. In 1925, the state banned its use as payment, or substitute for the legal currency, the Quetzal. Despite the prohibition, tokens continued to have a widespread use until the late twentieth century. Some tokens have counter-marks on them. The reasons for those include: the change of ownership of the property, second minting by the same owner of the farm to prevent forgery or fraud or to update his inventory, clearance for use by a different farm, the change in value, or to disable it and put it out of circulation. The classification of the different coins in this catalog is made in alphabetical order, giving preference to the name of the estate if known (omitting adjectives, such as the, the, san, farm, plantation, ranch, etc.).. If not known, the classification is made under the name of the issuer or name appearing on the token. In case we would not know any of the above, we would sort it by any first letter or number that shows on the token, except if the meaning of such initial is known, in which case we would sort it according the the principles above. This catalog is in no way "the" catalog for farm tokens in Guatemala. It is far from it despite being the most comprehensive publicly known to date. Today some collectors speak of up to 4,000 different tokens, and we have here only about 1000. This is a work that aims at labeling the tokens that I have in my collection with pictures and illustrates the different pieces that I know, their size and materials used. I hope it will serve as a reference for future studies or for people who do not know those tokens existed, since there is very little literature on the matter, and I faced the lack of cooperation of my fellow citizens to share the tokens and their knowledge about them. Almost all of the bibliographic reference available today comes from catalogs and foreign publications. The idea is to keep improving and expanding as I get new tokens and information on them. The collection of farm tokens listed here was started by my father, Jose Roberto Sandoval Campo, around 1970. From him I inherited about 250 different tokens and expanded to nearly 800. In early 2008, I sold the entire collection to the President of the Dominican Numismatic Society, José Manuel Henriquez, a good friend who is collecting farm tokens from Latin America. Before I gave them to José Manuel, I took pictures and measurements of the tokens that make up the collection. Today we maintain constant communication in order to strengthen and expand this catalog, which he himself has called "Our Collection". I hope this brochure will be of some use wherever in the world you may find yourself. 1. Burzio, Humberto F. "Diccionario de la Moneda Hispanoamericana". Buenos Aires. 1958. 2. Calicó, Ferrán; Calicó, Xavier; y, Trigo, Joaquín. "Monedas Española Desde Felipe II a Isabel II 1556 a 1868". Barcelona. 1982. 3. Cayón, Juan R.; Carlos Castán. "Las Monedas Españolas y las Medallas de Proclamación". Madrid. 1991. 4. Cayón, Juan R.; Carlos Castán. "Las Monedas del Imperio Español 1479-1713". Madrid. 1976. 5. Elizondo, Carlos A. Jr. "Eight Reales and Pesos of The New World". Texas. 1971. 6. Guttag, Julius. "Guttag Collection, Latin America Coins". New York. 1929. 7. Hoberman, Gerald. "The Art of Coins and Their Photography". New York. 1982. 8. Jovel García, José Roberto. "Historia Numismática de El Salvador en el Siglo Diecinueve", San Salvador. 1999. 9. Jovel García, José Roberto. "Monedas de Necesidad de Guatemala: Siglos XVII a XIX". Santiago de Chile. 2001. 10. Krause, Chester; Clifford Mishler. "Standard Catalog of World Coins". Iola.1984. 11. López Chavez y Sánchez, Leopoldo. "Catalogo de la Onza Española". Madrid. 1961. 12. Medina, José Toribio. "Medallas de Proclamaciones y Juras de los Reyes de España en América". Santiago de Chile. 1917. 13. Navascués, Joaquín. "Las Monedas Hispánicas del Museo Arqueológico Nacional de Madrid Vol I Y II". Barcelona. 1969. 14. Prober, Kurt. "Historia Numismática de Guatemala". Guatemala. 1973. 15. Quintana, Roberto R. "Apuntes sobre el Desarrollo Monetario de Guatemala". Guatemala. 1971. 16. Robinson III, Charles M. "A Catalogue of The Coins of Guatemala, 1733-1963". San Benito. 1964 17. Solis F., Ignacio. "Memorias de la Casa de Moneda de Guatemala y del Desarrollo Economico del Pais" 6 tomos. Guatemala. 1978. 18. Solorzano F, Valentín. "Evolución Económica de Guatemala". Guatemala, 1963. 19. Superior Galleries. "Paul Karon Collection of 8 Escudos and Other Classic Latin American Coinage". New York. 1992. 20. Vicenti, José A. "Catalogo General de la Moneda Española" tomo II (1700-1868). Madrid. 1974. 21. Wallace, Holland. "Central America Coinage Since 1821". Weslaco. 1966. 22. Estudio inédito sobre numismática guatemalteca desde la época precolombina hasta 1974 por FJA, Guatemala.